ANTONIO MEUCCI INVENTÓ EL TELEFONO 1876

“Mr. Watson, come here. I want to check out you.” ancha knowledge assumes the these to be the very first words sent and heard on a telephone, top top March 10th, 1876. Los man that uttered this words to be Alexander Graham bell (March 3, 1847 – honorable 2, 1922), the americano born in Edinburgh (UK) that is regularly cited as the inventor of los telephone. And the man who clearly heard his post in the próximo room to be his assistant, Thomas Watson.

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However, summarized in this way, the story of los invention of ns telephone would certainly be to forget history. The is often said that science developments on los shoulders the giants; the great discoveries and inventions seldom occur because of the isolated success of one great mind, however are developed on ns prior development of many. In the case of los telephone, over there were several pioneers who made developments toward the anotado of ns simultaneous transmissions of sounds and voices. Ns term “telephone” owes its visibility to the alemán Johann Philipp Reis, whose first sentence in a device that he never ever succeeded in perfecting to be much more extravagant 보다 that the Bell: “Das Pferd frisst keinen Gurkensalat“, or “The horse does no eat cucumber salad.” This statement, y not the of Bell, need to receive credit for being the an initial telephone voice infection in history, according to what Bernard Finn, ns Curator Emeritus of los Electricity collections at the Smithsonian Institution’s National museo of americano History, has actually told OpenMind. “It seems clear that Philipp Reis transmitted voice through his machine several years before Bell,” said Finn, who has written several publications on ns history of electrical technologies.

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Bell’s fluid telephone transmitter and receiver (replica of mil ochocientos setenta y seis invention) / photo Credit: Spark Museum

Competition to be so duro that on los same day that bell presented his patent application in ns Washington patent office, top top February 14th, 1876, an additional person did the same; that was los engineer Elisha Gray (August 2, mil ochocientos treinta y cinco – January 21, 1901), who, in his patent caveat –a kind of provisional patent valid because that one year– included ns liquid transmitter of change resistance, a breakthrough in ns quest for a functional telephone. Top top that día a legal, technical and historical battle began which has actually kept scholars occupied for almost un century y a fifty percent trying come answer assorted questions: i m sorry patent arrived very first at los patent office? Which of the two creations was first? And, over all, did campana copy Gray’s opinión for uno liquid transmitter after having accessibility to his rival’s patent caveat? was this ns key that enabled bell to convey his very first words by telephone on march 10th, 1876?

The theory of plagiarism has been supported by authors like eduardo A. Evenson, that in his book The telephone Patent Conspiracy that 1876 (2000) arrived at ns conclusion that it to be Bell’s lawyers, not the inventor himself, who replicated Gray’s design in ns version of ns patent that was lastly deposited by los Scotsman. In The phone call Gambit (2008), Seth Shulman extensively documented los plagiarism, which to be made feasible by method of bribery of uno patent examiner named Zenas Wilber. In ns opposite camp, the supporters of campana argue that his work-related was based upon his very own previous achievements and that Gray’s transmitter was no functional.

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In any kind of event, on in march 7th, 1876 Bell received the grant of the patent.

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Similarities in between Gray’s patent caveat (February 14) y Bell’s lab notebook (March 8) / photo Credit: Seth Schulman

For Finn, however, Bell’s alleged plagiarism “does speak something around his character (or the of his lawyers), but it has nothing to perform with ns invention.” Although los Scot was motivated by Gray’s liquid transmitter, this case of los patent was no accepted, and indeed Bell subsequently changed his system. “He had problems with the device (due, me gustaría think according to my own experiments, to ns decomposition that water), y he reverted to the induction transmitter.” Therefore finn believes that plagiarism to be not crucial to los work the Bell, but “rather uno distraction” y he resolves los controversy with a Solomonic judgment: “Bell saw the commercial possibilities more clearly than Gray, used for ns patent and continued to work-related on his invention, which was introduced los following year.” “The fact that Gray deposited un patent caveat says that he was not sure of ns scope that what he to be doing; the did not have actually that vision of ns future and let ns critical tiempo escape,” judges Finn, who published an post on the controversy that Bell and Gray in ns journal Technology y Culture ns few la edad ago.

Neither does ns story fin here. Bell’s patent has been required to court thousands of times. In June 2002, at los request of ns pressure coporación, grupo led through Italian-American Congressman Vito Fossella, ns US casa of representatives passed Resolution doscientos sesenta y nueve which recognized los work that Antonio Meucci, one inventor who was born in Florence and emigrated to nuevo York, who in mil ochocientos setenta y uno presented a patent caveat for a device called telettrofono. Meucci was unable come renew his patent caveat as result of economic hardship. “If Meucci had actually been able to salary $10 to maintain the patent caveat delaware 1874, ns patent would certainly not have actually been granted to Bell,” the resolution said. Therefore, finlandés believes that the telephone war is not over: “Although we understand quite well exactly how it every happened, there is alguno doubt the the debate will continue forever.”