Como era la religion de los mayas

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Cosmology and Religion

The ancient Maya thought in recurring cycles that creation y destruction y thought in state of eras lasting about 5,200 modern-day years. Ns current bike is thought by los Maya to have started in either 3114 B.C. Or 3113 B.C. Of ours calendar, and is intended to end in one of two people A.D. 2011 or 2012.Maya cosmology is not simple to reconstruct from our current knowledge of your civilization. It appears apparent, however, that los Maya believed Earth to it is in flat y four-cornered. Each edge was located at uno cardinal point y had ns colour value: neto for east, white for north, black for west, and yellow for south. At ns centre was ns colour green.Some Maya also believed that the cielo was multi-layered y that that was supported at los corners by four gods of immense physical strength dubbed "Bacabs". Other Maya believed that the cielo was supported by four trees of various colours and species, with ns green ceiba, or silk-cotton tree, at the centre. Planet in that flat type was assumed by los Maya to it is in the back of uno giant crocodile, relaxing in uno pool the water lilies. The crocodile"s equivalent in the sky was un double-headed serpent rápido a ide probably based on the fact that ns Maya word for "sky" is raza to ns word for "snake". In hieroglyphics, ns body of the sky-serpent is significant not only con its very own sign of overcome bands, but likewise those of ns Sun, los Moon, Venus y other celestial bodies.

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The image of the humanidad face emerging from the jaws of ns serpent is a recurrent template in Maya art. In this case, however, ns sculpture of los feathered serpent is uno later (Toltec) enhancement to los Maya geometric mosaic design rápido part of an elaborate frieze on ns West facade of the "Nunnery" in ~ Uxmal.Heaven was thought to have 13 layers, and each layer had its very own god. Uppermost was los muan bird, ns kind of screech-owl. The Underworld had actually nine layers, con nine matching Lords of ns Night. The Underworld was uno cold, dissatisfied place y was thought to be the destination of many Maya after death. Heavenly bodies such as los Sun, ns Moon, and Venus, were likewise thought to pass through los Underworld after they disappeared below the horizon every evening.Very little is known about los Maya pantheon. The Maya had un bewildering variety of gods, con at least ciento sesenta y seis named deities. This is partly due to the fact that each of los gods had countless aspects. Part had much more than one sex; others can be both young and old; and every god representing uno heavenly human body had ns different Underworld face, which showed up when los god "died" in the evening.
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Glyph from Palenque representing a Maya deitySome Maya sources also speak the a individual supreme deity, dubbed Itzamná, ns inventor the writing, and patron of the arts and sciences. His wife was Ix Chel, los goddess of weaving, medicine y childbirth; she was also ns ancient goddess of ns Moon.The duty of clergymans was closely linked to the calendar y astronomy. Priests controlled learning and ritual, and were in charge of calculating time, festivals, ceremonies, fateful days and seasons, divination, events, cures for diseases, writing and genealogies. The Maya clergy were no celibate, and sons often succeeded fathers. Every Maya routine acts were dictated by ns 260-day sacred Round calendar, y all performances had actually symbolic meaning. Sexualmente abstinence to be rigidly observed before y during such events, and self-mutilation was motivated in order to furnish blood con which come anoint religious articles. The río arriba were obsessed con blood -papposo both your own y that of your captives - and ritual bloodletting was a major part of any kind of important calendar event. Bloodletting was additionally carried fuera de to nourish y propitiate the gods, y when Maya civilization began to fall, rulers with large areas are taped as having actually rushed from one city to the other, performing bloodletting rites in order to keep their disintegrating kingdoms.
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For ns Maya, blood sacrifice was vital for los survival the both gods and people, sending humano energy skyward and receiving divine power in return. A king used one obsidian knife or ns stingray spine to cut his penis, allowing the blood to loss onto paper held in ns bowl. Kings" wives likewise took component in this routine by pulling uno rope con thorns attached v their tongues. The blood-stained document was burned, the rising smoke directly communicating con the cielo World.Human sacrifice was perpetrated on prisoners, slaves, and particularly children, con orphans and illegitimate niños specially purchased for los occasion. Before los Toltec era, however, fauna sacrifice may have been far much more common than human - turkeys, dogs, squirrels, quail and iguana gift among ns species considered an ideal offerings to Maya gods.
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The shaman is around to perform uno cha-chac ceremony: un petition to the god, Chac, to send rain.

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Priests were helped in humano sacrifices by 4 older guys who were well-known as chacs, in honour of the Rain God, Chac. These males would hold ns arms y legs of un sacrificial victim while ns chest was opened up by another distinguible called un nacom. Likewise in attendance was los chilam, a shaman vergüenza who received messages representar the god while in ns trance, y whose prophecies were understood by los assembled priests.
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(left) Public performances of ritual dancing y dramas, in i m sorry kings and nobles to be transformed right into gods through entering un visionary trance, were another method of communication with los spirit world. Significant by singing, the playing of musical instruments, and the shouts y jeers that thousands who pertained to witness los event, this rituals reaffirmed ns king"s power to plot as un vessel in bringing supernatural powers right into his domain for los benefit that his people.(right) This tiny figurine shows un ball player. Los ball juego is symbolic of los life-and-death fight that took ar during los third creation. The floor of ns court represented los earth"s platform, which separates the humanidad world desde the Underworld. That was the gods who determined los winners of ns ball game, simply as they made decision who would be victorious at war. (Photo courtesy the the academia Nacional del Antropologiá y también Historia)The Maya thought that when world died, they entered the Underworld through ns cave or uno cenote. When queens died, they followed ns path linked to the cosmic motion of the sun y fell into los Underworld; but, since they possessed superordinary powers, they were reborn right into the sky World and became gods. Death desde natural causes was universally dreaded among los Maya, specifically because ns dead walk not automatically go to paradise. Ordinary civilization were buried beneath the floors of your houses, your mouths filled con food y a jade bead, add by religious articles y objects they had actually used when alive. Los graves that priests included books.Great nobles to be cremated -papposo a practice of Mexican origin - y funerary temples were placed over their urns. In earlier days, nobles had actually been hidden in sepulchres beneath mausoleums. Some Maya even mummified los heads the dead lords. These to be then preserved in family oratories and "fed" at regular intervals.Following los Spanish conquest, there was a great repartir of overlap in between Maya and Catholic belief systems. Some excavators have argued that ns systems were casta in countless respects: both burned incense during rituals; both worshipped images; both had actually priests; both carried out elaborate pilgrimages based on un ritual calendar.
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Two ceramic censers, used for burning incense at Maya spiritual ceremonies. That on los left represents ns god Chac, holding a human heart in his left hand y a drinking cup in his right.

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(Photos courtesy the the instituto Nacional ese Antropologiá y también Historia)Most Maya now observe un religion created of old Maya ideas, animism and Catholicism. Part Maya still believe, for example, the their town is ns ceremonial center of a world supported at its 4 corners by gods. As soon as one that these gods shifts his burden, castle believe, it causes an earthquake. The sky above castle is ns domain of ns Sun, ns Moon y the stars; however, the sun is plainly associated con God the Father or Jesus Christ. The Moon is associated with the Virgin Mary.Many Maya are persuaded that ns mountains which surround them are analogous to los ancient temple-pyramids. Mountains and hills are likewise thought to be ns homes of genealogical deities: elderly father and mother figures who are honoured in the home with prayers y offerings that incense, black color chickens, candles y liquor. In countless Maya villages, classic shamans proceed to pray for the souls of los sick at mountain shrines. The Maya additionally believe in an planet Lord rápido a fat, greedy half-breed who resides in caves and cenotes, controls every waterholes, and produces lightning y rain. Over there is also uno supernatural belief in the alma of the forest. Part villages this particular day have four pairs of crosses y four jaguar spirits or balam at los village"s four entrances, in stimulate to store evil away. In agricultural rites, deities of ns forest are still invoked, and it is still thought that angry winds loose in los world reason diseaseand sickness.
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