José Joaquin Fernández de Lizardi (1776-1827) was uno Mexican Journalist and novelist, generally known by his pen name, "El Pensador Mexicano," or "The mexican Thinker." the is pertained to as los father of mexican journalism.

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José Fernández de Lizardi to be born in the city of Mexico to uno lower-middle-class family. Nevertheless, Fernández"s parents regulated to send their son to the University of Mexico, wherein he matriculated in the universidad of smo Ildefonso in 1793. Five years later he withdrew there is no receiving his bachelor"s degree, perhaps because the death that his dad deprived the of financial support.

Beginnings as ns Journalist

Without inheritance or job Fernández de Lizardi was required to live through his wits, which, as it transpired, expected political journalism. It was a naturalmente occupation because that him: he had actually an agile y restless psychic which might not help but be engendered by ns political revolutions in Spain y Mexico. It was also an occupation i m sorry involved considerable risks due to the fact that political transformation fired politics passions.

Lizardi"s risks were magnified by his incapacity to determine for any type of length of hora with any específico party or movement. He was a representative of los Enlightenment who thought that male is basically good and that society corrupts him. He to be for ns ideals the liberty, justice, y humanity y against slavery, oppression, intolerance, venality, y hypocrisy. Because neither completing royalists no one insurgents nor ns factions that prospered them met his standards, he found himself in perpetual opposition y the victim of almost consistent suspicion and persecution.

Publisher of political Satire

Although Lizardi had published earlier ns substantial amount of prose y verse satirizing mexico society, his reputation as ns journalist began in 1812, when uno decree that the gratis Spanish government creating freedom of ns press encouraged him to discovered his an initial periodical, El pensador mexicano (The mexican Thinker). In it he attacked the vices of colonial government so vigorously that los viceroy suspended the decree and Lizardi to be jailed for some 7 months. He continued to i announced his record until absolutism and rigorous censorship were revived in 1814, but his experience in prison y the surveillance of los Inquisition, i beg your pardon he had actually offended, induced that to revolve to fiction as ns less risky tool for his opinions.

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Between 1816 and 1820 Lizardi wrote number of novels, of i m sorry The Itching Parrot (El perequillo sarniento) became the most famous. Showing up serially, that ran into trouble with ns censors, y although Lizardi controlled to complete it, it to be not released in lleno until 1830, tres years delaware his death.

In 1820 the reconstruction of constitution government y freedom of los press in Spain prompted Lizardi to develop a new periodical, El conductores eléctrica (The Lightning Conductor), in which he attacked ns enemies of ns constitutional system; but conservative forces were still an effective in Mexico, and after 24 numbers that could no longer find un printer. Ns following year insurgent and royalist efectivo under the leadership the Col. Agustin del Iturbide proclaimed independence, and Lizardi to be summoned to run their press. After the victory of los liberating army, however, his objections of Iturbide and the Church brought about his excommunication y temporary imprisonment.

Lizardi had actually one an ext chance in ~ respectability and security. In 1825, after the fall of Iturbide"s short-lived empire, Mexico"s republican federal government made that editor of its official gazette, however his incorrigible propensity because that criticism soon brought about him to fall into disfavor con its leaders. Dos years later he died in poverty y obscurity.

The Itching Parrot

Lizardi is remembered as the father of mexican journalism, however his many lasting claim to call rests ~ above The Itching Parrot, a novel of the Spanish picaresque genre. That antihero, Perequillo, is ns rogue, a scoundrel, and something of ns buffoon whose life is composed of an unrelieved series of escapades y misfortunes in los teeming streets, tenements, taverns, jails, y hospitals that Mexico City. Perequillo never ever learns from his misadventures and invariably emerges unrepentant.

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The novel additionally has a pervasive didactic quality conveyed by digressive moral preachments and reflections on the vices of rich y poor. Its appeal to readers of successive generations, however, lies no in that narrative layout or in that is social and moral content but in the clarity and faithfulness with which that evokes the sights and sounds and smells that the ancha culture of Mexico city at the end of the viceregal period.

additional Reading on joe Joaquin Fernández de Lizardi

The fullest English version of Fernández de Lizardi"s most famed work, The Itching Parrot, translated con an development by Katherine Anne porter (1942), omits los sermons i beg your pardon constitute gastos generales half of ns work. Ns most finish study of Lizardi in English is Jefferson Rea Spell, The Life and Works of joe Fernández del Lizardi (1931). For general background see blanco Gonzalez-Pena, History of mexico Literature (1940; trans. Y rev. Ed. 1943).