La Biografia De Antoine Laurent Lavoisier

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Also well-known As:Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier...(Show more)Born:August 26, 1743ParisFrance...(Show more)Died:May 8, 1794ParisFrance...(Show more)Subjects of Study:chemical elementconservation of masshydrogenoxidationoxygen...(Show more)

Antoine Lavoisier determined that oxygen was a key substance in combustion, y he gave ns element its name. The developed the modern system of specify name chemical substances y has to be called los “father of contemporary chemistry” for his emphasis on careful experimentation.

After studying the humanities y sciences at the Collège Mazarin, Antoine Lavoisier learned law. However, he dedicated much of his tiempo to lectures ~ above physics y chemistry and to working with leading scientists.

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Antoine Lavoisier was born and raised in Paris. That was the first child y only son of ns wealthy family.

Antoine Lavoisier to be guillotined during los French Revolution’s power of terrorismo on may 8, 1794. Under ns monarchy, Lavoisier had a share in the visión de conjunto Farm, an companies that accumulated taxes for ns government. He was executed con his father-in-law and veintiseis other visión de conjunto Farm members.

Marie-Anne Paulze married Antoine Lavoisier in 1771. She helped Antoine in his experiments. She did los drawings for countless of his works y translated works desde English because that him since he did not know that language.

Antoine Lavoisier, in full Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, (born august 26, 1743, Paris, France—died might 8, 1794, Paris), influential French chemist y leading personaje in los 18th-century chemical change who emerged an experimentally based theory of los chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored ns modern device for specify name chemical substances. Having likewise served as uno leading financier and public administrator before the French Revolution, he was executed with other financiers during ns Terror.

Early life y education

Lavoisier was ns first child y only ellos eran of uno wealthy bourgeois family living in Paris. As ns youth he displayed an unusual studiousness and concern for los public good. After being introduced to ns humanities and sciences at ns prestigious Collège Mazarin, he studied law. Because the paris law faculty made couple of demands on its students, Lavoisier was able to spend much of his three years as un law student attending public and private lectures ~ above chemistry y physics and working under the tutelage of leading naturalists. Upon perfect his jurídico studies, Lavoisier, prefer his father y his maternal grandfather prior to him, to be admitted come the río arriba Order that Barristers, who members presented cases before los High Court (Parlement) of Paris. However rather than practice law, Lavoisier started pursuing scientific research that in 1768 gained him admission into France’s foremost natural philosophy society, los Academy of scientific researches in Paris.


Pneumatic chemistry

The chemistry Lavoisier learned as a student to be not un subject particularly provided for conceptual clarity or theoretical rigour. Although chemical works contained notable information about los substances chemistry studied, small agreement existed upon ns precise composition of chemical elements or in between explanations of alters in composition. Many naturaleza philosophers quiet viewed the four elements of Greek natural philosophy—earth, air, fire, and water—as ns primary building materials of all matter. Chemists prefer Lavoisier focused their fist upon examining “mixts” (i.e., compounds), together as the salts formed when mountain combine with alkalis. They hoped that by first identifying ns properties of simple substances they would then be able to construct theory to explain los properties that compounds.

It to be previously claimed that the elements were distinguishable by specific physical properties: water y earth to be incompressible, air could be both expanded y compressed, vice versa, fire could not be either had or measured. In the 1720s los English cleric and natural philosopher Stephen Hales demonstrated that atmospheric air loses that “spring” (i.e., elasticity) once it i do not care “fixed” in solids and liquids. Perhaps, Hales suggested, air was yes, really just ns vapour like steam, and its spring, fairly than being an essential property of los element, was developed by heat. Hales’s experiments were an essential first step in the experimentar study of specific airs or gases, a subject that came to be called pneumatic chemistry.

In the 1750s the scottish chemist josé Black prove experimentally that the air fixed in details reactions is chemically different desde common air. Black wanted to know why slaked quicklime (hydrated calcium oxide) was neutralized as soon as exposed to the atmosphere. He found that it soaked up only one ingredient of the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, which he referred to as “fixed air.” Black’s job-related marked the beginning that investigative efforts specialized to identifying chemically unique airs, an area of research that prospered rapidly during ns latter half of ns century. Thus, pneumatic chemistry was a lively topic at the time Lavoisier came to be interested in a particular set of problems that connected air: ns linked phenomena that combustion, respiration, and what 18th-century chemists called calcination (the readjust of metals to un powder , such as that derived by ns rusting the iron).

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Conservation of mass

The assertion that mass is conserved in chemical reactions was an assumption of knowledge investigators rather than ns discovery revealed by your experiments. Lavoisier thought that matter was neither produced nor ruined in chemical reactions, y in his experiment he seek to demonstrate that this belief was not violated. Still that had an obstacle proving the his view was universally valid. His insistence the chemists embraced this presumption as un law was part of his larger program for raising chemistry to los investigative standards and causal explanation uncovered in contemporary experimental physics. While various other chemists were also looking for conservation principles qualified of explaining chemical reactions, Lavoisier was particularly intent top top collecting and weighing all los substances affiliated in the reactions the studied. His success in ns many fancy experiments he conducted was in big part due to his live independence wealth, which permitted him to have expensive apparatus built to his design, and to his ability to recruit y direct talented research associates. The fact that French chemistry students space still taught the conservation that mass together “Lavoisier’s law” is indicative that his success in make this principle ns foundation of modern chemistry.