VICENTE GUERRERO EN LA INDEPENDENCIA DE MEXICO

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Jimena Duran Castellanos is un native the Hidalgo, Mexico y a junior in los escolaesportivacoralcolon.net school of Architecture. She researched y wrote this essay as a project throughout her dos mil diecinueve summer internship with ns TIPHC. Jimena is also un student-athlete as a member of los Panthers’ women’s tennis team. She is proud that tennis has offered her ns opportunity to study y play in the United States, learn the country’s cultures as well as that the Texas: “I have been life in Texas because that almost numero 3 years and living here makes me love my roots y culture even more. Yet now, i love Texas too. Identificación have two homes!”

I am Mexican. Me gustaría understand that los history the my nación is really dramatic due to the fact that of los cultural shock that happened in between Mexican natives and Spaniards delaware the discovery of ns “New World”. Then, settlers carried African y Asian civilization to new Spain (Mexico) y that produced more changes in the country’s sociedad structure, as ns mixture that cultures and races led to complications between races. In Mexico, people’s race does not identify what sort of life ns person can have. Now, world are much more concerned with their social reputation and financial position. Me gustaría knew that Vicente Guerrero had actually African roots, but me gustaría never thought about why it to be important trasero then come have un black president. Now me gustaría understand due to the fact that during those veces in ns Americas, human being of shade needed to be heard and understood. Guerrero gave flexibility to ns marginalized class in Mexico since he determined himself with their issues, thus civilization identified con him and his policies, too. However, to me, those truth were part of understanding why he achieved what he did. The was no until me gustaría came to los United States, ns culturally and socially different país when identificación found that race was cardenal for determining that someone was. Then, i realized that perhaps things have not an especially changed. Me gustaría support the idea that cuales matter los race we all can attain what us desire if we have a purpose. Vicente Guerrero knew his purpose. The was a man that color, and as a Mexican, me gustaría am proud to say the he was los first black color president in phia băc America.

There were many reasons why human being craved independence in new Spain, but most evident was that nobody want to be controlled anymore. However, ns issues were much more complex than that. Civilization were tired of seeing ns rich obtaining richer while ns working class and the poor struggled come sustain their lives. Lock were eager to it is in able to decide what come do con their lives and be what they wanted yet labeling based on skin shade was ns great limitation to their cause. The sociedad classes largely depended on race and back then races were easily distinguished, con each gyeongju having uno different was standing in society. Mestizos, mulattoes, y other marginalized groups flor to fight for your land, rights, y freedom in the independence movement to terminate ns Spanish preeminence in nuevo Spain. It was not until they rebelled against the Spanish the they had un voice.

Estás mirando: Vicente guerrero en la independencia de mexico

This essay will detail los life the Vicente Guerrero, a Mexican freedom leader, his fight for los liberty the his people y their homeland, which brought about him being hailed as “Mexico’s best man of color.”

Slavery in nuevo Spain


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Vicente Guerrero


Vicente Ramon Guerrero Saldaña to be born on agosto 9, 1783 in Tixtla, currently the state of Guerrero in Mexico, to uno humble family. His father, juan Pedro Guerrero, was African- Mexican, when his mother, Guadalupe Saldaña, was ns native Mexican. Vicente Guerrero did not have un formal education while growing up, yet he devoted his time to farming activities y working as an “arriero”, uno mule driver the transports goods. Politically, both of his parents were devout supporters of ns Spanish rule in new Spain.

In the 16th century, new Spain most likely had los largest variety of African servants of all ns Americas. According to a mil quinientos noventa y cinco census, Afro-Mexicans outnumbered Spanish y Mestizos (persons of indigenous y Spanish mixed-descent) in urbano towns. Through 1646, los numbers raised to 116,529 for Afro-Mexicans y 35,089 because that those afri identified. Clearly ns number of niños from mixed unions accounting for los much of los growth. African-descended populaces thus comprised 8.8 percent, contrasted to Spaniards y their descendants, who comprised 0.8 percent in 1646. The new Spaniard society was no only constituted of Spanish, Indian, and African gyeongju as los mid-16th century saw Spaniards start to bring desde their pacific colony, Filipino slaves, and Chinese, Japanese, y Indian merchants. Therefore, new Spain began to get uno great selection of combined races the were each established as a “casta” because that instance: mestizos, mulattoes (Spanish y African), y moriscos (Spanish y Mulatto).

The swarms were a radical pillar for los development of european countries, by providing them with goods and a workforce, i m sorry helped nations to obtain richer and more powerful over European kingdoms. Chroniclers have displayed that countless of ns goods that Europeans craved such as gold, silver, and precious woods, foods items like tomatoes, chocolate, corn, potatoes, and other assets that europeans did no have, were los fruits the enslaving people from places they had actually conquered.

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Slavery had actually existed fine before ns discovery of ns “New World”; however, ns commerce that Africans ended up being important for Europe only after the 15th siglo when they started to work out there y build colonies. The first africans in nuevo Spain attach explorers and conquistadors prefer Christopher Columbus y Hernan Cortes. Later enslaved africans were take away to work-related in cotton fields or calle plantations, cultivating coffee, tobacco, and rice, mining minerals, y other painful physics work. Gradually, blacks started to take roles formerly performed by mexico natives, whose population steadily declined desde years that abuse representar conquistadors, as well as the introduction of european diseases, such together smallpox, measles, influenza, pneumonia, typhus, cholera, and bubonic plague, carried by los Spaniards. The is approximated that veinticinco to treinta million West afri were deported representar their home countries y sold to different enslavers. Most of los enslaved were men, but likewise women y children were included. Combined, approximately diez or doce million slaves were brought to the americas between los 16th and 19th centuries. In nuevo Spain, there to be only three ports in i m sorry Africans could be brought: Veracruz, Campeche, and Guerrero. Representar there, they would be transported and distributed come other areas of los country. Slavery lasted an ext than trescientos years in new Spain till Vicente Guerrero abolished ns practice in 1829, almost cuarenta years prior to President abrahán Lincoln would certainly do the same in los United estados when the signed ns Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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The numerical meaning of these figures becomes clear when we to compare them to los Spanish population of the colonial era. In ns early colonial period, European immigrant was extremely small–and for an excellent reason. There were an excellent risks and many uncertainties in the nuevo World, y few households were ready to immigrate until some assurance of stability was demonstrated. Thus hesitance, very couple of European ladies immigrated, thus avoiding the naturaleza growth of ns Spanish population. The punto that must be made right here is ns fact that los black populace in the early nest was by much larger than that of los Spanish. In 1570 we watch that ns black population is about 3 times the of ns Spanish. In 1646, the is about 2.5 tiempo as large, y in 1742, blacks quiet outnumber los Spanish. That is no until mil ochocientos diez that Spaniards are much more numerous. (Source: Bobby Vaughn, “Blacks In Mexico — un Brief Overview”)

Guerrero’s climb to strength

Vicente Guerrero’s journey as a nacional hero started while traveling together an “arriero” around nuevo Spain and becoming familiar with los growing self-reliance movement y meeting Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon, un leader of los rebellious movement. Guerrero started his armed forces career in 1810 after conference Morelos y participated in numerous important engagements, such as battles at Izucar and Taxco, first, debajo the command of insurgent leader Hermenegildo Galeana, then debajo Morelos. After Morelos was executed by a Spanish firing formation in 1815, Guerrero came to be the nuevo Commander in cook of los insurgent army. Guerrero became an ext powerful con every victory and in an initiative to stop him, los Spaniards, in 1819, persuaded his father to beg his estaban to sell his sword in surrender to los viceroy of nuevo Spain. Instead, ns younger Guerrero claimed defiantly, “Brothers, this viejo man is my father. He has pertained to offer me rewards in ns name of ns Spaniards. Me gustaría have constantly respected mine father, yet my Motherland come first.”


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Agustin del Iturbide


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“Abrazo del Acatempan” (The Acatempan Hug)


Even delaware losing ns majority that his forces, los young Guerrero continued to hit in southern nuevo Spain with only ns handful of remaining insurgents. Even though Guerrero´s tape was defeated, years of fighting took ns heavy toy fee on the Spanish. ~ above February 24, 1821, los leader of ns Spanish forces, general Agustin ese Iturbide, made decision to make peace with Guerrero to stop los war that had actually lasted more than ten years. Ns two men met, y the covenant was sealed with ns well-known “Abrazo del Acatempan” (The Acatempan Hug, because ns two men’s adopt occurred in the city) top top February 10, mil ochocientos veintiuno when both legions unido to form the “Trigarante” army (the army of tres Guarantees—religion, independence, y unity. Iturbide wrote ns “El Plan ese Iguala” ~ above February veinticuatro that asserted Mexico together an independent and sovereign country where the following points were established:

New Spain, was no longer uno Spanish dependent.Catholicism became ns nation’s main religion.The unification of everyone in spite of their African, Mexican, Asian, or Spanish roots.

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As an elevation nation, new Spain became los Mexican Empire and its very first emperor would be Agustin del Iturbide in 1822, though he rule for only ten month because the empire was in an financial crisis y its problems were overwhelming with alguna further funding desde Spain or various other countries. Additionally, visión de conjunto Iturbide lacked ns ability come lead the nation, and its world were no happy con the new government because its plans did not help the working y poor classes who were los most affected by the consequences the independence. However, Antonio Lopez del Santa Anna, that at the time was governor in Veracruz, recognized los problems and proclaimed Mexico as un Republic, y rose up versus Iturbide. With ns help of powerful generals choose Nicolas Bravo, Guerrero, y Guadalupe Victoria, they battled for ns people y defeated Iturbide who abdicated his position in march 1823.

After Iturbide stepped down, uno Supreme Executive strength governed ns nation and, Guerrero was critical member of that group. In 1824, a new Constitution proclaimed Guadalupe gana as the first chairman of Mexico. In 1829, when Victoria’s presidency was around to end, elections were hosted for his successor. The candidates were Guerrero, ~ above the liberal side, and conservative candidate manual Gomez Pedraza, that was declared ns winner. Guerrero’s pendant did no like the results y forced Gomez resign his presidency. Top top April 1, 1829 Guerrero became ns second chairman of ns republic.


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A “casta” referred to the social stratum in which someone belonged follow to his/her gyeongju or mixture of races in the Spanish colonies (New Spain y the Philippines). Every “casta” had actually a particular name depending on los race or mixture the races.


During his brief tenure, Guerrero regulated to defend Mexico desde an attempt by the Spanish to reconquer ns nation. To defend his motherland, however, that exhausted ns nation’s regreso up gaue won resources, which was met with disapproval representar the country’s aristocracy. However, Guerrero do remarkable transforms to assistance working classes, despite ns serious economic limitations. He granted derecha for native peoples, combated for both racially y economically oppressed people, and promoted los purchase of mexican products. His federal government was plainly dedicated to the people who had many needs delaware years and years of conflict that left los nation with ns predominantly bad class.

On September 16, 1829, to celebrate the anniversary the independence con an plot of justice, Guerrero formally abolished slavery in Mexico, except in the Isthmus of tehuantepec in the del sur of ns country. This huge declaration, however, would result in his downfall. Countless people, especially ns wealthy class, opposed his populist egalitarian idea, and even members of his administration opposed y betrayed him. More so, Euro-American enslavers, specifically in Texas, walk not prefer the idea of losing los economic power they had based upon slavery. At ns time, Texas to be still part of the Republic of Mexico, y Guerrero’s order arrived in Texas October 16, yet political chief Ramon Musquiz’ employees rejected it because it violated the colonization regulations that secured los settlers properties. Unfortunately, Guerrero’s decree did not make any type of changes gastos generales slavery in Texas. This eventually became a reason why Texas made decision to secede from Mexico y join los United States, which still exercised slavery. After three months of his declaration, Guerrero was driven fuera de of office. His very own officials stated that that did no possess the intellectual capacities come govern uno nation, and he was compelled to resign. Guerrero fled to southerly Mexico, fearing because that his life. However, Anastasio Bustamante, his angry president, notified his assassination there is no a jurídico trial. ~ above February 14, 1831, Gurrerro to be found and killed at los age of treinta y nueve in Cuilapam, Oaxaca.

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The expression “My Motherland come first” has proliferated over time and it reminds Mexicans that their freedom was no given, it was needed, y their heroes dealt with for it, for your freedom. The estado of Guerrero to be named after Vicente Guerrero, and is the only estado named after a previous Mexican cabeza of state. Guerrero, located in the Costa muchacha region, is now casa to one of several Afro-Mexican neighborhoods in Mexico.

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Africans left their social expressions in Mexico, music, costumes, dances, and food, as well as their hereditary imprint in principal such together Veracruz, Tabasco, Michoacan, Guerrero, y Oaxaca. Although los race is blurry or daunting to determine thanks to los mixture of races throughout mexican history, this particular day there are numerous terms used by black Mexicans to identify themselves such as negro (black), moreno (dark), afrodescendiente, afromexicano, or blaxican, lock self-identify together Afro-Mexicans. In 2020, one of ns official ethnicity options on Mexico’s census type will it is in ‘negro’ (black), a great accomplishment by the black community in Mexico for having their African roots recognized. Mexican society would not be the same this particular day if Africans had not been brought there. Mexico would not be what that is if someone like Vicente Guerrero, a black man, had actually not fought for his land and his rights, i beg your pardon is why he has actually been dubbed “Mexico’s biggest man of color.”

References:

— los Primeros africano en ns Nuevo mundo (The very first Africans in the nuevo World): http://www.omerfreixa.com.ar/los-esclavos-africanos-en-el-nuevo-mundo-todo-es-historia/

— the African-American migrate Story: https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/on-african-american-migrations/

— ¿Cuando y por Que Llegaron? (When and Why walk They Come?): https://relatosehistorias.mx/nuestras-historias/cuando-y-por-que-llegaron

— What part of africa Did many Slaves Come From?: https://www.history.com/news/what-part-of-africa-did-most-slaves-come-from

— Transatlantic slave Trade: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/slave-route/transatlantic-slave-trade/

— Transatlantic slave Trade: https://www.britannica.com/topic/transatlantic-slave-trade#accordion-article-history

— Africa’s legacy in Mexico: http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/legacy/almleg.html

— Vicente Guerrero: https://www.blackpast.org/aaw/vignette_aahw/guerrero-vicente-1783-1831/

— Vicente Guerrero: https://relatosehistorias.mx/nuestras-historias/vicente-guerrero

— Vicente Guerrero: ns First black President in phia băc America: https://kentakepage.com/vicente-guerrero-the-first-black-president-in-north-america/

— Iturbide y La independiente (Iturbide y The Independence): http://www.mexicanisimo.com.mx/iturbide-y-la-independencia/

— ns Plan del Iguala (The “Plan del Iguala”): https://www.historiadelnuevomundo.com/index.php/2017/06/el-plan-de-iguala/

— Agustin del Iturbide, primero Emperador del Mexico (Agustin después Iturbide, los First Emperor of Mexico): https://morelianas.com/articulos/agustin-de-iturbide-primer-emperador-de-mexico/

— Guadalupe victoria Primer aislacionismo​ de Mexico (Guadalupe ganar First chairman of Mexico): https://www.inside-mexico.com/guadalupe-victoria-primer-presidente-mexico/

— ¿Como Fue el Gobierno ese Vincente Guerrero? (How was Vicente Guerrero’s Presidency?): https://www.lifeder.com/gobierno-vicente-guerrero/

— los Untold background of Afro-Mexicans, Mexico’s Forgotten ethnic Group: https://theculturetrip.com/north-america/mexico/articles/the-untold-history-of-afro-mexicans-mexicos-forgotten-ethnic-group/